By C.J.B. Macmillan
happens, the way it occurs, and why it occurs. Our assumption needs to be that this can be as actual in schooling because it is in atomic physics. yet this leaves many different inquiries to resolution. The the most important ones: what sort of technology is right or acceptable to schooling? How does it vary from physics? what's wrong with the prevai1~ ing, almost unopposed learn culture in schooling? What may well or will be performed to interchange it with a extra sufficient tradi tion? What thoughts are essential to describe and clarify what we discover there? it truly is during this realm that we discover ourselves. the place to begin? One position - our position, keep in mind that - is with one constrained yet valuable inspiration in schooling, instructing. a protracted philosophical culture excited by the character of educating is going again (along with every thing else) to Plato, divulging most modern ly within the paintings of such philosophers as B. O. Smith, Scheffler, Hirst, Komisar, eco-friendly, McClellan, Soltis, Kerr, Fenstermacher, et al. An empirical culture runs parallelto the philosophers -it has its such a lot outstanding smooth proponents in Gage, the Soars, Berliner, Rosen shine, yet its roots should be traced to the Sophists. those tradi tions were at loggerheads over the centuries.
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Additional resources for A Logical Theory of Teaching: Erotetics and Intentionality
L2 be brought to bear on current, more-or-Iess living traditions? Perhaps by considering current anomalies, criticisms, and defenses of a tradition, its 2. The tenn comes from Brown (1977). 50 A LOGICAL THEORY OF TEACHING viability can be assessed. Such an assessment might show ways in which the tradition can be improved, or it might suggest that there are other directions that might be more fruitful. It is this task that we shall take on in the rest of this chapter. There are problems with the process-product tradition of research on teaching; but there are also successes to be accounted for, and some interesting defenses of the tradition.
Gage finds the basic methodological structure of his paradigm in personnel-selection research. "Whether the purpose has been to select college students or clerical workers, clinical psychologists or airplane pilots, the same paradigm has prevailed: get a criterion and then find its predictors" (1963a, p. 115). The "ultimate" criteria that he seems willing to consider are always changes in pupils, either while in school, upon completion of school, or even in later years. The product in process-product research is change in students.
Whatever exists at all exists in some amount. To know it thoroughly involves knowing its quantity as well as its quality. Education is concerned with changes in human beings; a change is a difference between two conditions; each of these conditions is known to us only by the product produced by it - things made, words spoken, acts performed, and the like. To measure any of these products means to define its amount in some way so that competent persons will PROCESS-PRODUCT RESEARCH 47 know how large it is; better than they would without measurement.