By I. M. Ward
Presents a complete advent to the mechanical behaviour of stable polymers. greatly revised and up-to-date all through, the second one version now comprises new fabric on mechanical relaxations and anisotropy, composites modelling, non-linear viscoelasticity, yield behaviour and fracture of tricky polymers.
The obtainable method of the ebook has been retained with each one bankruptcy designed to be self contained and the speculation and functions of the topic conscientiously brought the place acceptable. the newest advancements within the box are integrated along labored examples, mathematical appendices and an intensive reference.
- Fully revised and up-to-date all through to incorporate all of the most recent advancements within the field
- Worked examples on the finish of the chapter
- An necessary source for college kids of fabrics technology, chemistry, physics or engineering learning polymer science
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Extra info for An Introduction to the Mechanical Properties of Solid Polymers
It can be seen that the principal axes of this ellipsoid do not coincide with the x, y and z axes that were chosen to refer to the undeformed state. However, without any loss of generality, we could have chosen to deﬁne the x, y and z axes in the undeformed state to coincide with the principal axes of the strain ellipsoid. We can therefore deﬁne the deformation in terms of normal strain (only extensional strain components deﬁned by º1 , º2 and º3 ) provided that we choose our axes carefully by reference to the deformed state.
In this theory, softening arises because some chains in the deformed network reach their full extensibility so that on further deformation these chains do not give a contribution to the reduction in entropy and hence to the network stress, which is correspondingly reduced. Stepto and co-workers have shown that their theory gives an exact quantitative ﬁt to the stress–strain behaviour of polydimethyl siloxane networks , based only on the values for the PROBLEMS FOR CHAPTERS 2 AND 3 51 rotational isomeric states obtained from the Flory–Crescenzi–Mark rotation isomeric state model for polydimethyl siloxane .
273 MPa, n ¼ 75. (Reproduced with permission from Treloar, The Physics of Rubber Elasticity, 3rd edn, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1975) Although we have seen how the extension to non-Gaussian statistics gives rise to a very large increase in tensile stress at large extensions, in the case of natural rubber it has been proposed that the observed increase in tensile stress occurs primarily because of strain-induced crystallization. The basic physical idea is that the melting point Tc of the rubber is increased due to extension: Tc ¼ ˜H/˜S, where ˜H and ˜S are the enthalpy and entropy of fusion, respectively.