By A. Schuster, J. Nicholson
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To facilitate this switching, a packet header is added to the payload in each packet. The header carries addressing information, for example, the destination address or the address of the next node in the path. The intermediate nodes read the header and determine where to switch the packet based on the information contained in the header. At the destination, packets belonging to a particular stream are received and the data stream is put back together. The predominant example of a packet-switched network is the Internet, which uses the Internet Protocol (IP) to route packets from their source to their destination.
However, even in the data path, in most cases, electronics is needed at the periphery of the network to adapt the signals entering the optical network. In many cases, the signal may not be able to remain in optical form all the Way to its destination due to limitations imposed by the physical layer design and may have to be regenerated in between. In other cases, the signal may have to be converted from one wavelength to another wavelength. In all these situations, the signal is usually converted from optical form to electronic form and back again to optical form' Having these electronic regenerators in the path of the signal reduces the transparency of that path.
These factors have driven the development of high-capacity optical networks and their remarkably rapid transition from the research laboratories into commercial deployment. This book aims to cover optical network technologies, systems, and networking issues, as well as economic and other deployment considerations. 1 Telecommunications Network Architecture 3 Telecommunications N e t w o r k Architecture Our focus in this book is primarily on the so-called public networks, which are networks operated by service providers, or carriers, as they are often called.