By Elie Maricau
This booklet specializes in modeling, simulation and research of analog circuit getting older. First, all very important nanometer CMOS actual results leading to circuit unreliability are reviewed. Then, transistor getting older compact types for circuit simulation are mentioned and several other tools for effective circuit reliability simulation are defined and in comparison. eventually, the effect of transistor getting older on analog circuits is studied. Aging-resilient and aging-immune circuits are pointed out and the impression of know-how scaling is mentioned.
The types and simulation recommendations defined within the e-book are meant as an relief for machine engineers, circuit designers and the EDA group to appreciate and to mitigate the influence of getting older results on nanometer CMOS ICs.
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Extra info for Analog IC Reliability in Nanometer CMOS
Research indicated how adding 1–2 % of copper to aluminum increased the resistance to EM about 50 times. This effect is attributed to the fact that copper inhibits the diffusion of atoms along the grain boundaries (Tu 2003). Due to the further scaling of CMOS technologies, a need for a better interconnect conductor than Al(Cu) (having a lower resistance-capacitance delay) was needed. Therefore the industry has turned to full-copper interconnect wires. Copper has a much higher melting point than aluminum and therefore atomic diffusion should be much slower in copper than in aluminum.
4. Secondary generated hot electron injection (SGHE) involves the generation of hot carriers from impact ionization with a secondary carrier that was created by an earlier impact ionization incident. e. bremsstrahlung radiation). Under the influence of the field generated by the substrate’s bulk bias, the first carriers are accelerated and potentially generate secondary carriers. These secondary carriers also accelerate in the bulk bias field towards the surface region where they further gain kinetic energy to overcome the surface energy barrier (see Fig.
When injected into such a region they can get trapped or cause the generation of interface states. These defects in turn lead to shifts in the electrical characteristics of the transistor such as a shift of the VTH , the current factor β and the output conductance go . The degradation of integrated circuits due to hot carrier injection (HCI) first became a problem in the mid-eighties due to the continuous scaling of transistor dimensions without accompanying supply voltage reduction (Takeda et al.