By F. Makken (auth.), A. Uzo Mokwunye (eds.)
Tropical Africa escaped from the glaciers that coated the temperate components of the area in the course of the Ice Age. The legacy is that the majority of the mum or dad fabrics of the soils of tropical Africa are previous, hugely weathered and with out bases and phosphate-bearing minerals. conventional farming platforms that have been particularly sturdy and sustainable trusted lengthy fallow sessions after one to 2 years of cropping to keep up the efficient ability of the soils. in recent years and particularly in densely populated parts, a massive category of 'landless' farmers have started to domesticate marginal lands or to invade the 'forest reserves' thereby exacerbating the issues of land and environ psychological degradation. of soil fertility that might facilitate the creation of sufficient amounts of the primary keeping a degree staples has turn into an important problem to agricultural scientists in tropical Africa. to extend the nutrient providing strength of soils calls for the inputs of fertilizers. those should be natural or inorganic. The potency with which those externally provided inputs can bring up agricultural construction and decrease soil and environmental deterioration depends at the skill of scientists to figure out the best varieties and amounts of the goods to use to every soil, crop and cropping process in addition to the facility of farmers to obtain needful farm deal with ment skills.
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Additional info for Alleviating Soil Fertility Constraints to Increased Crop Production in West Africa
Pages 249-262 In: Lal R and Greenland DJ (ed) Soil Physical properties and crop production in the tropics. John Wiley & Sons, Chichester 34. Nguu NV, Alam MS and Lawson TL (1987) Effect of Climate on Response to Nitrogen and insect infestation in irrigated rice. Pages 107-114 In: Rijks R and Mathys G (eds) Proceedings of the seminar on Agrometeorology and Crop protection in the Lowland Humid and Sub-Humid Tropics. Cotonou, Benin 7-11 July 1986. World Meteorological Organization, Geneva, Switzerland 35.
In a more recent combination of long term climatic data and real time weather data analysis, Sivakumar  noted a highly significant relationship between the date of onset of rains and the length of the growing season across the Southern Sahelian and Sudanian zones. Using this as a prognostic tool, he computed the duration of the growing season for Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso, based on the early onset of the rain relative to the computed mean date of onset (Table 2). The average date of beginning of rains at Ouagadougou is computed as 23 May, and the average length of the growing season is 117 days.
For Bengou located in the Sudanian zone, rainfall satisfies PE demand for over 8 decades. To the far south as observed earlier, this period is over 8 months in duration (Fig. 1). Climatic-related problems of soil fertility and fertilizer use The implications of the climatic characteristics of West Africa to soil fertility-related problems and practices are both direct and indirect. The high rainfall regime of the humid areas with the associated high rate of leaching accounts for the poor chemical characteristics (low nutrient reserves, low organic matter content, low CEC, high acidity, Al toxicity) of the Oxisols and Ultisols that form the bulk of the soils of the Rain Forest zone .